Het Amsterdam UMC en Tranzo, Tilburg University onderzoeken een rookvrij beleid op sportverenigingen. Veel kinderen komen op sportverenigingen waar vaak nog buiten wordt gerookt, bijvoorbeeld langs de lijn. Terwijl zien roken, doet roken. Een rookvrije sportvereniging biedt het goede voorbeeld.
In de eerste fase van het onderzoek (2019-2020) zijn interviews met 87 vrijwilligers en groepsgesprekken met 180 jongeren gehouden. Vier vragen speelden daarbij een belangrijke rol:
1) Welke overwegingen hebben sportverenigingen om wel of geen rookvrij beleid in te voeren?
2) Hoe verloopt de invoering van een rookvrij beleid op sportverenigingen?
3) Steunen jongeren een rookvrij beleid op sportverenigingen en waarom?
4) Hoe kijken jongeren aan tegen de relatie tussen roken en sport?
De resultaten en aanbevelingen van de eerste fase zijn gepubliceerd in een factsheet.
De eerste fase van het onderzoekt laat zien dat:
- De wil van sportverenigingen om een rookvrij beleid in te voeren groot is. Aan de andere kant zien sportverenigingen ook belemmeringen, die hen ervan weerhouden om een rookvrij beleid in te voeren.
- De invoering van een rookvrij beleid veelal succesvol verloopt. Er zijn echter ook situaties waarin invoering - met name handhaving en naleving van het beleid - nog niet optimaal verloopt.
- De meeste jongeren een volledig rookvrij beleid op sportverenigingen steunen.
- Het overgrote deel van de jongeren vind dat roken en sport niet samengaan.
The tobacco epidemic causes a huge burden of mortality and morbidity worldwide. To achieve a smoke-free population in the long run, it is essential that young generations are prevented from experimenting and becoming regular smokers. For this, children and adolescents ought to be raised in environments where tobacco use is hardly visible, where non-smoking is an obvious norm, and where it is hard for them to access and use tobacco products.
Key to such tobacco-free environments is legislation that bans the use of smoking at places visited by youth. To date, in Europe, much progress has been made in the adoption of smoke-free policies. Yet, policies in most countries do not, or only partially, cover outdoor settings such as school grounds, recreation parks, and sports grounds. The latter are particularly important as these are places where many children and adolescents spend much of their spare time, develop beliefs and attitudes regarding what is healthy, meet peers and make friends, and watch important role models such as trainers.
In recent years, about 200 Dutch outdoor sports clubs implemented smoke-free measures at their venues. Many of these clubs were encouraged and supported by organisations such as the Dutch Heart Foundation. The latter has developed a “road map” that specified (a) the type of actions that clubs could undertake to make venues smoke-free and (b) possible strategies to get these measures adopted by the club and implemented in practice.
Unfortunately, it is highly uncertain whether the recommended actions and strategies do adequately seize this unique opportunity to protect children against smoking. Smoke-free policies at schools serve as a warning . These policies could be effective in preventing youth smoking, but such positive effects may be reduced, nullified or even reversed when policies are only partially implemented, if communication is inadequate, or if enforcement is either weak or rigid .
Similar effects may as well occur at sports clubs. The potential impact of smoke-free policies on youth smoking may not be achieved if exemptions are allowed for specific places (e.g. terraces), times (e.g. evenings) or events (e.g. club parties, training camps). Poor communication may strengthen resistance instead of enhancing support. Rigid or weak enforcement may affect acceptance of the new rules.
However, it is uncertain which of these problems do really arise at sports clubs, and how they can be prevented. Our knowledge is limited because it is mostly based on experiences of advisors and contact persons at clubs, but not on that of the “end users” themselves: the youth. We urgently need to know their views, responses and experiences, in order to understand how smoke-free policies influence their lives, and how this influence can be enhanced.
The main goal of this project is therefore to determine how smoke-free policies at sports clubs contribute to an environment that prevents young people from taking up smoking. We take the perspective of adolescents at clubs with outdoor team sports, in particular football, hockey and korfball. We expect that smoke-free policies contribute to an environment that (1) strengthen positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding non-smoking and (2) reduce the risk of exposure to peer groups that promote pro-smoking lifestyles. However, we also expect these influences to largely depend on the precise actions taken, their implementation, and the club context.
We perform two empirical studies.
- The first starts in 2019, as a comparative study among 8 clubs with smoke-free policies and 8 clubs without such policies. At each club, we have two focus-group discussions with 14-16 years olds regarding their attitudes and beliefs towards sports and smoking, their social norms, and when/where they smoke. Moreover, we obtain relevant club-level information by field observations and structured interviews with board members, volunteers and parents.
- The second study starts in 2020. In an experimental design, we recruit and follow 15 clubs that will