The emergence of antibiotic resistance is increasingly limiting treatment of bacterial infections.Bacteria can become resistant via a process called “horizontal gene transfer (HGT)” which enable
bacteria to exchange DNA that may include resistance genes. In the STARCS project we have developed novel tools to identify HGT in complex ecosystems, such as the human gut. Studies
conducted in experimental animal models, the community, livestock and hospitals revealed that resistance plasmids can transfer and persist even in the absence of antibiotic selection and
indicated limited contribution of livestock to infections in humans. Mathematical models showed that curtailing antibiotics in livestock may have limited impact on antibiotic resistance in humans
and identified the important role of the environment in antibiotic resistance transmission between livestock and human reservoir as it will mitigate (partially) the effects of livestock antibiotic

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