ZonMw developed the More Knowledge with Fewer Animals (MKMD) programme in 2011 on behalf of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. Based on the experience and results of the first period, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy commissioned ZonMw to institute a follow-up for the period 2015-2017. The goal – the development and application of new and existing innovations that do not involve animal testing – remains unchanged in MKMD 2018-2020. The Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality is the commissioning organisation for MKMD from 2018 to 2020.
MKMD is the successor to the Limits to Animal Testing programme (2000-2012), which grew out of the Alternatives to Animal Testing Platform, which was set up in 1987 at the request of the House of Representatives and the Government of the time to coordinate and encourage research into alternatives in the context of an integrated policy on animal testing. Limits to Animal Testing I (2000-2004) focused mainly on fundamental scientific research, Limits to Animal Testing II (2005-2008) focused on translating knowledge to application and introduction, and Limits to Animal Testing III (2009-20112) focused on preparing alternatives already developed for application, as well as on projects targeting new knowledge across the entire 3R range (reduction, replacement, refinement).